our lecturers Wolfram Schultz

Wolfram Schultz

University of Cambridge, Cambridge,
United Kingdom

Neuroscientist, former President of the European Brain and Behaviour Society.Pioneered the analysis of pathways in the brain that are fundamental to our ability to balance risk and reward. His discoveries relate not only to psychology and neuroscience, but also to other areas of human activity such as management and economics. Pathways that carry the neurotransmitter dopamine connect the midbrain with higher brain areas associated with learning. He discovered that cells in this pathway change their activity according to how well animals and humans make predictions about expected rewards. Broadly, they release more dopamine if things turn out better than we expect, and less if they turn out worse. They signal this ‘prediction error’ in compliance with formal utility, linking psychological and economic theories.